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Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.22.4
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents consist of investments which are readily convertible into cash and have maturities of three months or less at the time of acquisition.

Receivables

Receivables

Receivables are reflected net of an allowance for credit losses and sales returns. Such allowance aggregated $14million and $13million at December31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Activity in the year ended December31, 2022 included an increase of $59million of bad debt charged to expense, $1 million related to foreign currency translation adjustments and $59million of write-offs. Activity in the year ended December31, 2021 included an increase of $54million of bad debt charged to expense and $58million of write-offs. Activity in the year ended December31, 2020 included an increase of $61million of bad debt charged to expense and $62million of write-offs.

Investments

Investments

All marketable equity and debt securities held by the Company are carried at fair value, generally based on quoted market prices and changes in the fair value of such securities are reported in realized and unrealized gain (losses) on financial instruments in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. The Company elected the measurement alternative (defined as the cost of the security, adjusted for changes in fair value when there are observable prices, less impairments) for its equity securities without readily determinable fair values. The total value of marketable equity securities aggregated $80million and $217million as of December31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

For those investments in affiliates in which the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence, the equity method of accounting is used. Under this method, the investment, originally recorded at cost, is adjusted to recognize the Company’s share of net earnings or losses of the affiliate as they occur rather than as dividends or other distributions are received. Losses are limited to the extent of the Company’s investment in, advances to and commitments for the investee. In the event the Company is unable to obtain accurate financial information from an equity affiliate in a timely manner, the Company records its share of earnings or losses of such affiliate on a lag.

Changes in the Company’s proportionate share of the underlying equity of an equity method investee, which result from the issuance of additional equity securities by such equity investee, are recognized in the statement of operations through the other, net line item. To the extent there is a difference between our ownership percentage in the underlying equity of an equity method investee and our carrying value, such difference is accounted for as if the equity method investee were a consolidated subsidiary.

The Company continually reviews its equity investments to determine whether a decline in fair value below the carrying value is other than temporary. The primary factors the Company considers in its determination are the length of time that the fair value of the investment is below the Company’s carrying value; the severity of the decline; and the financial condition, operating performance and near term prospects of the investee. In addition, the Company considers the reason for the decline in fair value, be it general market conditions, industry specific or investee specific; analysts’ ratings and estimates of 12-month share price targets for the investee; changes in stock price or valuation subsequent to the balance sheet date; and the Company’s intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for a recovery in fair value. If the decline in fair value is deemed to be other than temporary, the carrying value of the equity method investment is written down to fair value. In situations where the fair value of an investment is not evident due to a lack of a public market price or other factors, the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions to arrive at the estimated fair value of such investment. The Company’s assessment of the foregoing factors involves a high degree of judgment and accordingly, actual results may differ materially from the Company’s estimates and judgments. Writedowns for equity method investments are included in share of earnings (losses) of affiliates.

The Company performs a qualitative assessment for equity securities without readily determinable fair values each reporting period to determine whether the security could be impaired. If the qualitative assessment indicates that an impairment could exist, we estimate the fair value of the investments, and, to the extent the security’s fair value is less than its carrying value, an impairment is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations.

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

All of the Company’s derivatives, whether designated in hedging relationships or not, are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. If the derivative is designated as a fair value hedge, the changes in the fair value of the derivative and of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in earnings. If the derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, the effective portions of changes in the fair value of the derivative are recorded in other comprehensive earnings and are recognized in the statement of operations when the hedged item affects earnings. Ineffective portions of changes in the fair value of cash flow hedges are recognized in earnings. If the derivative is not designated as a hedge, changes in

the fair value of the derivative are recognized in earnings. None of the Company’s derivatives are currently designated as hedges.

The fair value of certain of the Company’s derivative instruments are estimated using the Black-Scholes model. The Black-Scholes model incorporates a number of variables in determining such fair values, including expected volatility of the underlying security and an appropriate discount rate. The Company obtained volatility rates from pricing services based on the expected volatility of the underlying security over the remaining term of the derivative instrument. A discount rate was obtained at the inception of the derivative instrument and updated each reporting period, based on the Company’s estimate of the discount rate at which it could currently settle the derivative instrument. The Company considered its own credit risk as well as the credit risk of its counterparties in estimating the discount rate. Considerable management judgment was required in estimating the Black-Scholes variables.

Property and Equipment

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment consisted of the following:

Estimated

December 31,

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2022

2021

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Land

NA

$

390

145

Buildings and improvements

10-40years

972

959

Support equipment

3-20years

864

804

Satellite system

15years

1,944

1,969

Construction in progress

NA

311

150

Total property and equipment

$

4,481

4,027

Property and equipment, including significant improvements, is stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method using estimated useful lives. Depreciation expense for the years ended December31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 was $262million, $270million and $268million, respectively.

Sirius XM Holdings capitalizes a portion of the interest on funds borrowed to finance the construction and launch of its satellites. Capitalized interest is recorded as part of the asset’s cost and depreciated over the asset’s useful life. Capitalized interest costs for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 were approximately $5 million and $7 million, respectively.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets with estimable useful lives are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values, and reviewed for impairment upon certain triggering events. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives (collectively, “indefinite lived intangible assets”) are not amortized, but instead are tested for impairment at least annually. Our annual impairment assessment of our indefinite-lived intangible assets is performed during the fourth quarter of each year, or more frequently if events and circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred.

The accounting guidance permits entities to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. The accounting guidance also allows entities the option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The entity may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period.

In evaluating goodwill on a qualitative basis, the Company reviews the business performance of each reporting unit and evaluates other relevant factors as identified in the relevant accounting guidance to determine whether it is more likely than not that an indicated impairment exists for any of our reporting units. The Company considers whether there are any negative macroeconomic conditions, industry specific conditions, market changes, increased competition, increased costs in doing business, management challenges, the legal environments and how these factors might impact company specific performance in future periods. As part of the analysis, the Company also considers fair value determinations for certain reporting units that have been made at various points throughout the current and prior years for other purposes. If based on the qualitative analysis it is more likely than not that an impairment exists, the Company performs the quantitative impairment test.

The quantitative goodwill impairment test compares the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value. Developing estimates of fair value requires significant judgments, including making assumptions about appropriate discount rates, perpetual growth rates, relevant comparable market multiples, public trading prices and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows. The cash flows employed in Liberty’s valuation analysis are based on management’s best estimates considering current marketplace factors and risks as well as assumptions of growth rates in future years. There is no assurance that actual results in the future will approximate these forecasts. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.

The accounting guidance also permits entities to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset is impaired. The accounting guidance also allows entities the option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any indefinite-lived intangible asset in any period and proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. The entity may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period. If the qualitative assessment supports that it is more likely than not that the carrying value of the Company’s indefinite-lived intangible assets, other than goodwill, exceeds its fair value, then a quantitative assessment is performed. If the carrying value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess.

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

The Company periodically reviews the carrying amounts of its property and equipment and its intangible assets (other than goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles) to determine whether current events or circumstances indicate that such carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount of the asset group is greater than the expected undiscounted cash flows to be generated by such asset group, an impairment adjustment is to be recognized. Such adjustment is measured by the amount that the carrying value of such asset groups exceeds their fair value. The Company generally measures fair value by considering sale prices for similar assets or by discounting estimated future cash flows using an appropriate discount rate. Considerable management judgment is necessary to estimate the fair value of asset groups. Accordingly, actual results could vary significantly from such estimates. Asset groups to be disposed of are carried at the lower of their financial statement carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.

Noncontrolling Interests

Noncontrolling Interests

The Company reports noncontrolling interests of subsidiaries within equity in the balance sheet and the amount of consolidated net income attributable to the parent and to the noncontrolling interest is presented in the statement of operations. Also, changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries in which the Company maintains a controlling interest are recorded in equity.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), under the modified retrospective transition method. ASC 606 requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers and also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASC 606 replaced most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).

The Company elected to utilize certain practical expedients as permitted under ASC 606. The Company elected to apply the guidance from ASC 606 only to contracts that were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Completed contracts are those contracts for which substantially all of the revenue had been recognized under ASC 605. The Company also elected to utilize the practical expedient for contract modifications. For modified contracts, the Company did not separately evaluate the effects of each contract modification that occurred prior to January 1, 2018. Instead, the Company reflected the aggregate effect of all contract modifications (on a contract-by-contract basis) that occurred prior to January 1, 2018 by identifying the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations and allocating the transaction price to such performance obligations.

Sales, value add, and other taxes when collected concurrently with revenue producing activities are excluded from revenue. Incremental costs of obtaining a contract are expensed when the amortization period of the asset is one year or less. To the extent the incremental costs of obtaining a contract relate to a period greater than one year, the Company amortizes such incremental costs in a manner that is consistent with the transfer to the customer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. If, at contract inception, we determine the time period between when we transfer a promised good or service to a customer and when the customer pays us for that good or service is one year or less, we do not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component.

Our customers generally pay for services in advance of the performance obligation and therefore these prepayments are recorded as deferred revenue. The deferred revenue is recognized as revenue in our consolidated statement of operations as the services are provided. Changes in the contract liability balance for Sirius XM Holdings during the year ended December 31, 2022 were not materially impacted by other factors. The opening and closing balances for our deferred revenue related to Formula 1 and Braves Holdings was approximately $347 million and $466 million, respectively.

As the majority of Sirius XM Holdings contracts are one year or less, Sirius XM Holdings utilized the optional exemption under ASC 606 and does not disclose information about the remaining performance obligations for contracts which have original expected durations of one year or less. As of December 31, 2022, less than six percent of the Sirius XM Holdings total deferred revenue balance related to contracts that extended beyond one year. These contracts primarily include prepaid data trials which are typically provided for three to five years as well as for self-pay customers who prepay for their audio subscriptions for up to three years in advance. These amounts will be recognized on a straight-line basis as Sirius XM Holdings’ services are provided.

Significant portions of the transaction prices for Formula 1 and Braves Holdings are related to undelivered performance obligations that are under contractual arrangements that extend beyond one year. The Company anticipates recognizing revenue from the delivery of such performance obligations of approximately $2,426 million in 2023, $2,073 million in 2024, $6,552 million in 2025 through 2030, and $1,234 million thereafter, primarily recognized through 2035. We have not included any amounts in the undelivered performance obligations amounts for Formula 1 and Braves Holdings for those performance obligations that relate to a contract with an original expected duration of one year or less.

Sirius XM Holdings

The following table disaggregates Sirius XM Holdings’ revenue by source:

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

amounts in millions

Subscriber

$

6,892

6,614

6,372

Advertising

1,772

1,730

1,340

Equipment

189

201

173

Other

150

151

155

Total Sirius XM Holdings revenue

$

9,003

8,696

8,040

The following is a description of the principal activities from which Sirius XM Holdings generates its revenue - including from self-pay and paid promotional subscribers, advertising, and sales of equipment.

Subscriber revenue. Subscriber revenue consists primarily of subscription fees and other ancillary subscription based revenue. Revenue is recognized on a straight line basis when the performance obligations to provide each service for the period are satisfied, which is over time as Sirius XM Holdings’ subscription services are continuously transmitted and can be consumed by customers at any time. Consumers purchasing or leasing a vehicle with a factory-installed satellite radio may receive between a three and twelve month subscription to Sirius XM Holdings’ service. In certain cases, the subscription fees for these consumers are prepaid by the applicable automaker. Prepaid subscription fees received from automakers or directly from consumers are recorded as deferred revenue and amortized to revenue ratably over the service period which commences upon sale. Activation fees are recognized over one month as the activation fees are non-refundable and do not provide for a material right to the customer. There is no revenue recognized for unpaid trial subscriptions. In some cases, Sirius XM Holdings pays a loyalty fee to the automakers when it receives a certain amount of payments from self-pay customers acquired from that automaker. These fees are considered incremental costs to obtain a contract and are therefore recognized as an asset and amortized to subscriber acquisition costs over an average subscriber life. Revenue share and loyalty fees paid to an automaker offering a paid trial are accounted for as a reduction of revenue as the payment does not provide a distinct good or service.

Music royalty fee primarily consists of U.S. music royalty fees (“MRF”) collected from subscribers. The related costs Sirius XM Holdings incurs for the right to broadcast music and other programming are recorded as revenue share and royalties expense in the consolidated statements of operations.Fees received from subscribers for the MRF are recorded as deferred revenue and amortized to subscriber revenue ratably over the service period.

Advertising revenue. Sirius XM Holdings recognizes revenue from the sale of advertising as performance obligations are satisfied, which generally occurs as ads are delivered. For Sirius XM Holdings’ satellite radio service, ads are delivered when they are aired. For streaming services, ads are delivered primarily based on impressions. Agency fees are calculated based on a stated percentage applied to gross billing revenue for Sirius XM Holdings’ advertising inventory and are reported as a reduction of advertising revenue. Additionally, Sirius XM Holdings pays certain third parties a percentage of advertising revenue. Advertising revenue is recorded gross of such revenue share payments as Sirius XM Holdings controls the advertising service including the ability to establish pricing and Sirius XM Holdings is primarily responsible for providing the service. Advertising revenue share payments are recorded to revenue share and royalties during the period in which the advertising is transmitted.

Equipment revenue. Equipment revenue and royalties from the sale of satellite radios, components and accessories are recognized upon shipment, net of discounts and rebates. Shipping and handling costs billed to customers

are recorded as revenue. Shipping and handling costs associated with shipping goods to customers are reported as a component of cost of services.

Other revenue. Other revenue primarily includes revenue recognized from royalties received from Sirius XM Canada.

Sirius XM Holdings revenue is reported net of any taxes assessed by a governmental authority that is both imposed on, and concurrent with, a specific revenue-producing transaction between a seller and a customer in the consolidated statements of operations.

Formula 1

The following table disaggregates Formula 1’s revenue by source:

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

amounts in millions

Primary

$

2,107

1,850

1,029

Other

466

286

116

Total Formula 1 revenue

$

2,573

2,136

1,145

Upon entering into a new arrangement, Formula 1 occasionally incurs certain incremental costs of obtaining a contract. These incremental costs relate to commission amounts that will be paid over the life of the contract for which the recipient does not have any substantive future performance requirement to earn such commission. Accordingly, the commission costs are capitalized and amortized over the life of the contract.

The following is a description of principal activities from which Formula 1 generates its revenue.

Primary revenue. Formula 1 holds exclusive commercial rights with respect to the World Championship, an annual, approximately nine-month long, motor race-based competition in which teams compete for the Constructors’ Championship and drivers compete for the Drivers’ Championship. Formula1 derives its primary revenue from the commercial exploitation and development of the World Championship through a combination of entering into race promotion, broadcasting and sponsorship arrangements. Primary revenue derived from the commercial exploitation of the World Championship is (i) recognized on an event by event basis for those performance obligations associated with a specific event based on the fees within the underlying contractual arrangement and (ii) recognized over time for those performance obligations associated with a period of time that is greater than a single specific event (for example, over the entire race season or calendar year) based on the fees within the underlying contractual arrangement.

Other revenue. Formula1 earns other revenue from miscellaneous and ancillary sources, primarily related to facilitating the shipment of cars and equipment to and from the events outside of Europe, revenue from the sale of tickets to the Formula One Paddock Club at most events, support races at events, various television production activities and other ancillary operations. To the extent such revenue relates to services provided or rights associated with a specific event, the revenue is recognized upon occurrence of the related event and to the extent such revenue relates to services provided or rights over a longer period of time, the revenue is recognized over time.

Braves Holdings

The following table disaggregates Braves Holdings’ revenue by source:

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

amounts in millions

Baseball

$

535

526

142

Mixed-Use Development

53

42

36

Total Braves Holdings revenue

$

588

568

178

Braves Holdings is required to estimate the entire transaction price of its contractual arrangements and recognize revenue allocated to each of the performance obligations within the contractual arrangements as those performance obligations are satisfied. Such performance obligations are typically satisfied over time and result in differences between revenue recognized and cash received, dependent on how far into a contractual arrangement Braves Holdings is at any given reporting period.

The following is a description of principal activities from which Braves Holdings generates its revenue.

Baseball revenue. Revenue for Braves Holdings ticket sales, signage and suites are recognized on a per game basis during the baseball season based on a pro rata share of total revenue earned during the entire baseball season to the total number of home games during the season. Broadcasting rights are recognized on a per game basis during the baseball season based on the pro rata number of games played to date to the total number of games during the season. Concession and parking revenue are recognized on a per game basis during the baseball season. MLB revenue is earned throughout the year based on an estimate of revenue generated by MLB on behalf of the 30MLB clubs. Sources of MLB revenue primarily include the Major League Central Fund and distributions from various licensing agreements.

Mixed-Use Development revenue. Revenue from Braves Holdings’ minimum rents are recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of their respective lease agreements. Some retail tenants are required to pay overage rents based on sales over a stated base amount during the lease term. Overage rents are only recognized when each tenant’s sales exceed the applicable sales threshold. Tenants reimburse Braves Holdings for a substantial portion of Braves Holdings operating expenses, including common area maintenance, real estate taxes and property insurance. Braves Holdings accrues reimbursements from tenants for recoverable portions of all these expenses as revenue in the period the applicable expenditures are incurred. Braves Holdings recognizes differences between estimated recoveries and the final billed amounts in the subsequent year. These differences were not material in any period presented. Sponsorship revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over each annual period. Parking revenue is recognized daily based on actual usage.

Cost of Sirius XM Holdings Services

Cost of Sirius XM Holdings Services

Revenue Share

Sirius XM Holdings shares a portion of its subscription revenue earned from self-pay subscribers with certain automakers. The terms of the revenue share agreements vary with each automaker, but are typically based upon the earned audio revenue as reported or gross billed audio revenue. Revenue share on self-pay revenue is recognized as an expense and recorded in revenue share and royalties in our consolidated statements of operations. Sirius XM Holdings also pays revenue share to certain talent on non-music stations on its satellite radio service and to podcast talent based on advertising revenue for the related channel or podcast. Revenue share on non-music channels and podcasts is recognized in Revenue share and royalties when it is earned. In some cases, Sirius XM Holdings pays minimum guarantees for revenue share to podcast owners which is recorded in other current assets in the consolidated balance sheets. The minimum guarantee is

recognized in revenue share and royalties primarily on a straight line basis over the contractual term. The prepaid balance is regularly reviewed for recoverability and any amount not deemed to be recoverable is recognized as an expense in the period.

Royalties

In connection with its businesses, Sirius XM Holdings must enter into royalty arrangements with two sets of rights holders: holders of musical compositions copyrights (that is, the music and lyrics) and holders of sound recordings copyrights (that is, the actual recording of a work). The Sirius XM and Pandora businesses use both statutory and direct music licenses as part of their businesses. Sirius XM Holdings licenses varying rights - such as performance and mechanical rights - for use in its Sirius XM and Pandora businesses based on the various radio and interactive services they offer. The music rights licensing arrangements for the Sirius XM and Pandora businesses are complex.

Sirius XM Holdings pays performance royalties for its Sirius XM and Pandora businesses to holders and rights administrators of musical compositions copyrights, including performing rights organizations and other copyright owners. These performance royalties are based on agreements with performing rights organizations which represent the holders of these performance rights. The Sirius XM and Pandora businesses have arrangements with these performance rights organizations. Arrangements with Sirius XM generally include fixed payments during the term of the agreement and arrangements with Pandora for its ad-supported radio service have variable payments based on usage and ownership of a royalty pool. Pandora must also license reproduction rights, which are also referred to as mechanical rights, to offer the interactive features of the Pandora services. For Pandora subscription services, copyright holders receive payments for these rights at the rates determined in accordance with the statutory license set forth in Section 115 of the U.S. Copyright Act (the “Copyright Act”). These mechanical royalties are calculated as the greater of a percentage of Sirius XM Holdings’ revenue or a percentage of its payments to record labels.

For Sirius XM Holdings’ non-interactive satellite radio or streaming services, it may license sound recordings under direct licenses with the owners of sound recordings or based on the royalty rate established by the CRB. For Sirius XM, the royalty rate for sound recordings has been set by the CRB. The revenue subject to royalty includes subscription revenue from Sirius XM Holdings’ U.S. satellite digital audio radio subscribers, and advertising revenue from channels other than those channels that make only incidental performances of sound recordings. The rates and terms permit Sirius XM to reduce the payment due each month for those sound recording directly licensed from copyright owners and exclude from its revenue certain other items, such as royalties paid to Sirius XM for intellectual property, sales and use taxes, bad debt expense and generally revenue attributable to areas of Sirius XM’s business that do not involve the use of copyrighted sound recordings.

Pandora has entered into direct license agreements with major and independent music labels and distributors for a significant majority of the sound recordings that stream on the Pandora ad-supported service, Pandora Plus and Pandora Premium. For sound recordings that Pandora streams and for which it has not entered into a direct license agreement with the sound recording rights holders, the sound recordings are streamed pursuant to the statutory royalty rates set by the CRB. Pandora pays royalties to owners of sound recordings on either a per-performance fee based on the number of sound recordings transmitted or a percentage of revenue associated with the applicable service. Certain of these agreements also require Pandora to pay a per subscriber minimum amount.

Programming Costs

Programming costs which are for a specified number of events are amortized on an event-by-event basis; programming costs which are for a specified season or include programming through a dedicated channel are amortized over the season or period on a straight-line basis. Sirius XM Holdings allocates a portion of certain programming costs

which are related to sponsorship and marketing activities to selling, general and administrative expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the agreement.

Cost of Formula 1 Revenue

Cost of Formula1 Revenue

Cost of Formula1 revenue consists of team payments and hospitality costs, which are principally related to catering and other aspects of the production and delivery of the Paddock Club, and circuit rights’ fees payable under various agreements with race promoters to acquire certain commercial rights at Events, including the right to sell advertising, hospitality and support race opportunities. Other costs include annual FIA regulatory fees, sponsorship commissions and those incurred in the provision and sale of freight, travel and logistical services, Formula 2 and Formula 3 cars, parts and maintenance services, television production and post-production services, advertising production services and digital and social media activities. These costs are largely variable in nature and relate directly to revenue opportunities.

Subscriber Acquisition Costs

Subscriber Acquisition Costs

Subscriber acquisition costs consist of costs incurred to acquire new subscribers which include hardware subsidies paid to radio manufacturers, distributors and automakers, including subsidies paid to automakers who include a satellite radio and a prepaid subscription to Sirius XM service in the sale or lease price of a new vehicle; subsidies paid for chipsets and certain other components used in manufacturing radios; device royalties for certain radios and chipsets; commissions paid to retailers and automakers as incentives to purchase, install and activate radios; product warranty obligations; freight; and provisions for inventory allowance attributable to inventory consumed in Sirius XM Holdings’ automotive and retail distribution channels. Subscriber acquisition costs do not include advertising costs, loyalty payments to distributors and dealers of radios and revenue share payments to automakers and retailers of radios.

Subsidies paid to radio manufacturers and automakers are expensed upon installation, shipment, receipt of product or activation and are included in subscriber acquisition costs because Sirius XM Holdings is responsible for providing the service to the customers. Commissions paid to retailers and automakers are expensed upon either the sale or activation of radios. Chipsets that are shipped to radio manufacturers and held on consignment are recorded as inventory and expensed as subscriber acquisition costs when placed into production by radio manufacturers. Costs for chipsets are expensed as subscriber acquisition costs when the automaker confirms receipt.

Advertising Costs

Advertising Costs

Advertising expense aggregated $537 million, $532 million and $452 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Advertising costs are primarily attributable to costs incurred by Sirius XM Holdings. Media-related advertising costs are expensed when advertisements air, and advertising production costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising production costs include expenses related to marketing and retention activities, including expenses related to direct mail, outbound telemarketing and email communications. Sirius XM Holdings also incurs advertising production costs related to cooperative marketing and promotional events and sponsorships. These costs are reflected in the selling, general and administrative expenses line in our consolidated statements of operations.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-Based Compensation

As more fully described in note15, Liberty has granted to its directors, employees and employees of its subsidiaries options and restricted stock to purchase shares of Liberty common stock (collectively, “Awards”). The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for an Award based on the grant-date fair value of the Award, and recognizes that cost over the period during which the employee is required to provide service (usually the vesting period of the Award).

Included in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations are the following amounts of stock-based compensation:

YearsendedDecember31,

2022

2021

2020

dzܲԳٲDzԲ

Cost of Sirius XM Holdings services:

Programming and content

$

34

33

32

Customer service and billing

6

6

6

Other

6

6

6

Other operating expense

39

36

43

Selling, general and administrative

152

175

174

$

237

256

261

Income Taxes

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying value amounts and income tax bases of assets and liabilities and the expected benefits of utilizing net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated using enacted tax rates in effect for each taxing jurisdiction in which the Company operates for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Net deferred tax assets are then reduced by a valuation allowance if the Company believes it more likely than not such net deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of an enacted change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

When the tax law requires interest to be paid on an underpayment of income taxes, the Company recognizes interest expense from the first period the interest would begin accruing according to the relevant tax law. Such interest expense is included in interest expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Any accrual of penalties related to underpayment of income taxes on uncertain tax positions is included in other income (expense) in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.

Earnings Attributable to Liberty Stockholders Per Common Share

Earnings Attributable to Liberty Stockholders Per Common Share

Basic earnings (loss) per common share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing net earnings (loss) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding (“WASO”) for the period. Diluted EPS presents the dilutive effect on a per share basis of potential common shares as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, including any necessary adjustments to earnings (loss) attributable to shareholders.

In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging— Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) (“ASU 2020-06”) which removes the separation models for convertible debt with cash conversion or beneficial conversion features and also requires the application of the if-converted method for calculating diluted earnings per share as the treasury stock method is no longer permitted for convertible instruments. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2022 using the modified retrospective approach, which does not require retrospective adjustment of prior period EPS, and recorded an immaterial cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings upon adoption. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 decreased diluted earnings attributable to Liberty SiriusXM stockholders per common share by $0.27 per share and decreased diluted earnings attributable to Liberty Formula One stockholders per common share by $0.06 per share for the year ended December 31, 2022.

SeriesA, SeriesB and SeriesC Liberty SiriusXM Common Stock

The basic and diluted EPS calculations are based on the following WASO. Excluded from diluted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 are 25 million, 19 million and 25 million potentially dilutive shares of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, respectively, because their inclusion would be antidilutive.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020 (a)

numberofsharesinmillions

Basic WASO

328

335

334

Potentially dilutive shares (b)

17

2

2

Diluted WASO (c)

345

337

336

(a) As discussed in note 2, Liberty distributed subscription rights to holders of Liberty SiriusXM common stock, which were priced at a discount to the market value, to acquire additional shares of Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock. The LSXMK rights offering, because of the discount, is considered a stock dividend and has been reflected retroactively in prior periods for the WASO.
(b) Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation of diluted EPS during periods in which net losses attributable to the Liberty SiriusXM Group are reported since the result would be antidilutive.
(c) As discussed in note 2, the Formula One Group’s intergroup interest in the Liberty SiriusXM Group was eliminated on April 22, 2020 in conjunction with the reattribution. The number of notional Liberty Sirius XM shares representing the intergroup interest held by the Formula One Group was 1,945,491 immediately prior to the reattribution. The intergroup interest was a quasi-equity interest which was not represented by outstanding shares of common stock; rather, the Formula One Group had an attributed value in the Liberty SiriusXM Group which was generally stated in terms of a number of shares of stock issuable to the Formula One Group with respect to its interest in the Liberty SiriusXM Group. Each reporting period, the notional shares representing the intergroup interest were marked to fair value. As the notional shares underlying the intergroup interest were not represented by outstanding shares of common stock, such shares had not been officially designated SeriesA, B or C Liberty SiriusXM common stock. However, Liberty assumed that the notional shares would have been comprised of SeriesC Liberty SiriusXM common stock in order to not dilute voting percentages. Therefore, the market price of SeriesC Liberty SiriusXM common stock was used for the quarterly mark-to-market adjustment through the unaudited attributed consolidated statements of operations. The notional shares representing the intergroup interest had no impact on the basic WASO. However, if dilutive, the notional shares representing the intergroup interest are included in the diluted earnings per share calculation for the unrealized gain or loss incurred from marking the intergroup interest to fair value during the period.

For periods in which share settlement of the 2.125% Exchangeable Senior Debentures and 2.75% Exchangeable Senior Debentures, which may be settled in shares of Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock, is dilutive, the numerator adjustment includes a reversal of the interest expense and the unrealized gain or loss recorded on the instruments during the period, net of tax where appropriate. Additionally, a hypothetical mark to market adjustment on the shares of Series A Liberty SiriusXM common stock included in the Securities Basket underlying the warrants is included in the numerator adjustment in periods in which cash settlement of the warrants would be more dilutive than share settlement.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

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Basic earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty SiriusXM stockholders

$

1,292

599

(747)

Adjustments

(31)

(35)

Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty SiriusXM stockholders

$

1,261

599

(782)

SeriesA, SeriesB and SeriesC Liberty Braves Common Stock

The basic and diluted EPS calculations are based on the following WASO. Excluded from diluted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 are 10 million, 2million and 5 million potentially dilutive shares of Liberty Braves common stock, respectively, because their inclusion would be antidilutive.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

numberofsharesinmillions

Basic WASO

53

52

51

Potentially dilutive shares (a)

10

9

Diluted WASO (b)

53

62

60

(a) Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation of diluted EPS during periods in which net losses attributable to the Braves Group are reported since the result would be antidilutive.
(b) As discussed in note2, following the Recapitalization and SeriesC Liberty Braves common stock rights offering, the number of notional shares representing the Formula One Group’s intergroup interest in the Braves Group was adjusted to 9,084,940 shares. A portion of this intergroup interest was reattributed to the Liberty SiriusXM Group on April 22, 2020. The number of notional shares representing the intergroup interest in the Braves Group held by the Formula One Group is 6,792,903 and the number of notional shares representing the intergroup interest in the Braves Group held by the Liberty SiriusXM Group is 1,811,066 as of December 31, 2022.

The intergroup interests are quasi-equity interests that are not represented by outstanding shares of common stock; rather, the Formula One Group and the Liberty SiriusXM Group have attributed values in the Braves Group which are generally stated in terms of a number of shares of stock issuable to the Formula One Group and the Liberty SiriusXM Group with respect to their interests in the Braves Group. Each reporting period, the notional shares representing the intergroup interests are marked to fair value. As the notional shares underlying the intergroup interests are not represented by outstanding shares of common stock, such shares have not been officially designated Series A, B or C Liberty Braves common stock. However, Liberty has assumed that the notional shares (if and when issued) related to the Formula One Group interest in the Braves Group would be comprised of Series C Liberty Braves common stock in order to not dilute voting percentages and the notional shares (if and when issued) related to the Liberty SiriusXM Group interest in the Braves Group would be comprised of Series A Liberty Braves common stock since Series A Liberty Braves common stock underlie the Convertible Notes. Therefore, the market prices of Series C Liberty Braves and Series A Liberty Braves common stock are used for the quarterly mark-to-market adjustment for the intergroup interests held by Formula One Group and Liberty SiriusXM Group, respectively, through the unaudited attributed consolidated statements of operations. The notional shares representing the intergroup interests have no impact on the basic WASO. However, if dilutive, the notional shares representing the intergroup interests are included in the diluted WASO as if the shares had been issued and outstanding during the period. For periods in which share settlement of the intergroup interests are dilutive, an adjustment is also made to the numerator in the diluted earnings per share calculation for the unrealized gain or loss incurred from marking the intergroup interests to fair value during the period.

Additionally, a hypothetical mark to market adjustment on the shares of Series A Liberty Braves common stock included in the Securities Basket underlying the warrants is included in the numerator adjustment in periods in which cash settlement of the warrants would be more dilutive than share settlement.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

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Basic earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Braves stockholders

$

(35)

(11)

(78)

Adjustments

31

(42)

Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Braves stockholders

$

(35)

20

(120)

SeriesA, SeriesB and SeriesC Liberty Formula One Common Stock

The basic and diluted EPS calculations are based on the following WASO. Excluded from diluted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 are 6 million, 5million and 7 million potentially dilutive shares of Liberty Formula One common stock, respectively, because their inclusion would be antidilutive.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

numberofsharesinmillions

Basic WASO

233

232

232

Potentially dilutive shares (a)

11

8

6

Diluted WASO (b)

244

240

238

(a) Potentially dilutive shares are excluded from the computation of diluted EPS during periods in which net losses attributable to the Formula One Group are reported since the result would be antidilutive.
(b) As discussed in note 2, the number of notional Liberty Formula One shares representing the Liberty SiriusXM Group’s intergroup interest in the Formula One Group is 4,165,288 shares as of December 31, 2022. The intergroup interest is a quasi-equity interest which is not represented by outstanding shares of common stock; rather, the Liberty SiriusXM Group has an attributed value in the Formula One Group which is generally stated in terms of a number of shares of stock issuable to the Liberty SiriusXM Group with respect to its interest in the Formula One Group. Each reporting period, the notional shares representing the intergroup interest are marked to fair value. As the notional shares underlying the intergroup interest are not represented by outstanding shares of common stock, such shares have not been officially designated Series A, B or C Liberty Formula One common stock. However, Liberty has assumed that the notional shares (if and when issued) would be comprised of Series A Liberty Formula One common stock since Series A Liberty Formula One common stock underlie the Convertible Notes. Therefore, the market price of Series A Liberty Formula One common stock is used for the quarterly mark-to-market adjustment through the unaudited attributed consolidated statements of operations. The notional shares representing the intergroup interest have no impact on the basic WASO. However, if dilutive, the notional shares representing the intergroup interest are included in the diluted WASO as if the shares had been issued and outstanding during the period. For periods in which share settlement of the intergroup interest is dilutive, an adjustment is also made to the numerator in the diluted earnings per share calculation for the unrealized gain or loss incurred from marking the intergroup interest to fair value during the period.

For periods in which share settlement of the 2.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2027, which may be settled in shares of Series C Liberty Formula One common stock, is dilutive, the numerator adjustment includes a reversal of the

interest expense and the unrealized gain or loss recorded on the instrument during the period, net of tax where appropriate. Additionally, an adjustment is also made to the numerator for a hypothetical mark to market adjustment on the shares of Series A Liberty Formula One common stock included in the Securities Basket underlying the warrants in periods in which cash settlement would be more dilutive than share settlement.

Years ended December 31,

2022

2021

2020

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Basic earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Formula One stockholders

$

558

(190)

(596)

Adjustments

(34)

112

75

Diluted earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Formula One stockholders

$

524

(78)

(521)

Reclasses and Adjustments

Reclasses and Adjustments

Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified for comparability with the current year presentation.

Estimates

Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The Company considers (i)fair value measurement of non-financial instruments, (ii)accounting for income taxes and (iii)the determination of the useful life of Sirius XM Holdings’ broadcast/transmission system to be its most significant estimates.

The Company holds investments that are accounted for using the equity method. The Company does not control the decision making process or business management practices of these affiliates. Accordingly, the Company relies on management of these affiliates to provide it with accurate financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP that the Company uses in the application of the equity method. In addition, the Company relies on audit reports that are provided by the affiliates’ independent auditors on the financial statements of such affiliates. The Company is not aware, however, of any errors in or possible misstatements of the financial information provided by its equity affiliates that would have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.